by South Africa's neighbours to liberation movements and South Africa's intervention in Angola and its incursions in Southern African States, raise interesting legal questions in international law. All laws and State actions must be in line with the Constitution. The present study does not attempt to define “customary law”, but some general comments on its character may be helpful. Unlike some of South Africa’s neighbors, which exempted customary law from the rule of nondiscrimination,35 no part of the South African legal system escaped scrutiny. The Constitution The Constitution is the supreme (highest) law of South Africa. Customary: Most indigenous legal systems resulted from age-old traditions and customs that came to be classified as law Direct orders + instructions from leaders resulted in laws which were circulated by chiefs + which had to be followed Formal administration of justice limited the courts function to the application, and not the creation, of law B. W. BENNEir, HUMAN RIGHTS AND AFRICAN CUSTOMARY LAW UNDER THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONSTITUTION 86 (1995); W. V. Meide, Gender Equality v. Right to Culture: Debunking the Perceived Conflicts Preventing the Reform of the Marital Property Regime of the 'Official Version' of Customary Law, 116 S. AFR. Chapter 20 examines the principal sources of humanitarian law and the status of this branch of law in South African municipal law. between customary and statutory-based systems of land tenure, including analysis of the new South Sudan land legislation. 4. The official version of customary law is found in statutes, law reports, the South African Law Reform Commission, Textbooks, University lectures and other public documents. Protection of Culture The cultural or ethnic pluralism of the past was not a popular option with drafters of the new constitution, largely because of its association with By definition, a customary marriage is a union that is negotiated, celebrated and concluded in terms of indigenous African customary law. and laws of the customary law of intestate succession prevailing in the Kingdom of Swaziland. 12 The aim of this study is therefore to survey the rules of customary law 13 in legal systems, including the South African civil law, which, until very recently, perceived domestic violence as a 'private' issue between spouses which did not merit legal intervention. The Finally, chapter 6 brings the thesis to a meaningful end, by criticizing the approaches adopted by the countries of South Africa, Ghana and Swaziland in improving the rights of women as far as the customary law of intestate succession is concerned. Customary law and intellectual property system: the issues What is customary law? Literature review also included broader reviews of legal pluralism and post-conflict customary justice efforts, with a focus on South Sudan and customary land law programming in other countries in Africa. Defining and characterising “customary law” would itself be the subject of an extended study. 100 (1999). An introductory background on South African customary law will be presented by way of tracing the development of customary law over time, focusing on three historical periods: colonialism, the apartheid era of segregation, and after democratization. L.J. The 1996 South African Constitution incorporated customary law into the South African legal system. This suggests that official customary law depends on alien values for validity.44 The 41 Van Breda and Others Appellants v Jacobs and Others Respondents 1921 AD 330. The sources of law (where the law comes from) in South Africa are: • The Constitution • Statute law • Common law • Customary law • Court decisions.